Road construction works

Road Reconstruction

Road Reconstruction work involves the removal and replacement of the asphalt surface and the granular bedding underneath. This type of work typically includes the replacement of all curb and gutters if present on the street and may include all or some sidewalk replacement depending on the condition. Temporary road closures are usually required for these projects with the exception of local traffic. 

Due to the nature of this work, Town staff also inspect existing Town servicing prior to construction such as water mains, waste water mains or storm sewers to determine if repairs or replacement are required as part of the construction works.

Should Town staff recommend operational improvements, this work would be incorporated into the construction works. 

Should sidewalks be present within the work extents, sidewalk ramp retrofits may be required at the intersections. This is a recent requirement from the “Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act” (AODA) which is required for all major road construction projects across Ontario. The sidewalk ramp retrofits require iron tactile plates to be installed.

Construction phasing for this type of work is often project specific depending on the scope explained above, however in general residents may expect the following construction phasing:

  1. Excavation & Removals – this will include removing the existing asphalt surface, granular bedding, curbs & gutters along the street. The common depths of excavation typically range from 40 to 60cm. On projects where existing servicing requires repairs or replacement, this will occur at various depths depending on the type of work. Excavation work can be phased further depending on lengths and depths of excavation required.

  2. Granular Bedding – once excavation work & underground repairs are complete for a specific section of road, it is time to install and compact the granular bedding.

  3. Concrete Works – this item may include work for curbs, gutters, catchbasins, maintenance holes and sidewalks.

    With the granular bedding in place, wooden form work is installed in order to pour new concrete curbs and gutters. Where work takes place in front of driveways, the work will be phased to allow narrowed vehicular access into your driveway while the concrete formwork stays in place for 2 to 4 days.

    The upper portions of catchbasins & maintenance holes are typically rebuilt simultaneously and are adjusted to the proposed finished elevation.

    Any sidewalk replacements or sidewalk ramp retrofits that are required are also completed simultaneously while other concrete work is taking place.

  4. Asphalt Surface – with the previous steps complete, it is time to install the asphalt surface. This is typically installed in two layers, with the final layer being level with the curb, gutters, catchbasins and maintenance holes.

  5. Restoration – with the asphalt surface in place, it is time for final restoration.This will include the replacement of topsoil/sod and final clean-up of the job site.

  6. Warranty Period – should any deficiencies happen after construction is complete, the contractor is responsible for warranty work typically for 1 to 2 years. Town staff monitor the performance of work during this time period and should residents have any concerns please notify us during this time period to investigate.

 Road reconstruction
Example of a Road Reconstruction project that included watermain replacement. (During Construction)

Road Resurfacing

Road Resurfacing work involves the removal and replacement of the asphalt surface with the use of hot-mix asphalt. The asphalt removal and replacement may be required for the full depth of asphalt, or for a partial depth depending on the condition of the road. This type of work typically includes the replacement of some curb and gutters if present on the street and may include some sidewalk replacement depending on the condition. Temporary road closures are not required for these projects however lane restrictions are. 

Due to the nature of this work, Town staff also inspect existing Town servicing prior to construction such as water mains, waste water mains or storm sewers to determine if repairs or replacement are required as part of the construction works.

Should Town staff recommend operational improvements, this work would be incorporated into the construction works. 

In general, residents may expect the following construction phasing:

  1. Concrete Works – this item may include work for curbs, gutters, catchbasins, maintenance holes and sidewalks.

    For concrete curbs, gutters and sidewalks, removals are the first step of this process. Afterwards, wooden formwork is installed for the new replacements. Where work takes place in front of driveways, the work will be phased to allow narrowed vehicular access into your driveway while the concrete formwork stays in place for 2 to 4 days.

    As par to this phase, the upper portions of catchbasins & maintenance holes are typically rebuilt simultaneously and are adjusted to the proposed finished elevation.

  2. Removal of Asphalt Surface – once all the concrete works is complete, the road is ready to be milled. Depending on the existing asphalt depth and scope of work, this will remove some or all of the asphalt material.

  3. Asphalt Surface – with all the asphalt removed, it is time to install the new asphalt surface. This is typically installed in one or two layers, with the final layer being level with the curb, gutters, catchbasins and maintenance holes.

  4. Restoration – with the asphalt surface in place, it is time for final restoration. This will include the replacement of topsoil/sod and final clean-up of the job site.

  5. Warranty Period – should any deficiencies happen after construction is complete, the contractor is responsible for warranty work typically for 1 to 2 years. Town staff monitor the performance of work during this time period and should residents have any concerns please notify us during this time period to investigate.

Sidewalk Retrofit
Example of AODA sidewalk retrofit as part of road resurfacing (post construction) and prior to pedestrian line painting

Microsurfacing

Microsurfacing work involves the application of asphalt emulsion (liquid asphalt) combined with fine crushed aggregate on top of an existing road surface. The process and description is very similar to Slurry Seal road works and is best used on top of surface treated or asphalt roads. It is best to apply microsurfacing on top of roads that have slight to moderate distresses. As the construction process usually takes 1-3 working days, this process is usually much quicker than typical hot-mix asphalt resurfacing. Temporary road closures are not required for these projects however lane restrictions are.

In general, residents may expect the following construction phasing:

  1. Road Sweeping – the project will first begin with the road being swept.

  2. Microsurfacing Application – once the road has been cleaned, microsurfacing applications may begin. The microsurfacing application is a mixture of small crushed aggregate and asphalt emulsion on top of the existing road surface. Depending on the scope of work, a second layer of microsurfacing may be applied.

  3. Warranty Period – should any deficiencies happen after construction is complete, the contractor is responsible for warranty work typically for 1 to 2 years. Town staff monitor the performance of work during this time period and should residents have any concerns please notify us during this time period to investigate.

Double High Float Surface Treatment

Double High Float Surface Treatment work involves the application of asphalt emulsion (liquid asphalt) on top of an existing road surface, followed by a layer of small aggregate material. For “Double” High Float Surface Treatment, this process is repeated with another layer of asphalt emulsion then a layer of small aggregate on top. The option of “Single” layer is available, however is not typically implemented in Town. Temporary road closures are not required for these projects however lane restrictions are.

The finished product first resembles a new gravel road with loose aggregate on top. However after months of traffic and compaction, a contractor is sent to the site to remove and haul away excess aggregate material. After the excess material is removed, the road surface is much smoother, and continues to get smoother as time goes on. 

Note, the year after a Double High Float Surface Treatment is done, a Slurry Seal application is commonly done, pending budget approvals. Slurry Seal applications done the next year provide a smooth black surface that is better suited for activities such as roller blading. For further details about those works, please see the description in the corresponding Slurry Seal section.

Slurry Seal

Slurry Seal work involves the application of asphalt emulsion (liquid asphalt) combined with fine crushed aggregate on top of an existing road surface. The process and description is very similar to Microsurfacing road works and is best used on top of surface treated or asphalt roads. It is best to apply Slurry Seal on top of roads that have slight to moderate distresses, it is common to apply Slurry Seal 1 year after Double High Float Surface Treatment road work. As the construction process usually takes 1-3 working days, this process is usually much quicker than typical hot-mix asphalt resurfacing. Temporary road closures are not required for these projects however lane restrictions are.

In general, residents may expect the following construction phasing:

  1. Road Sweeping – the project will first begin with the road being swept.

  2. Slurry Seal Application – once the road has been cleaned, slurry seal applications may begin. The slurry seal application is a mixture of small crushed aggregate and asphalt emulsion on top of the existing road surface. 

  3. Warranty Period – should any deficiencies happen after construction is complete, the contractor is responsible for warranty work typically for 1 to 2 years. Town staff monitor the performance of work during this time period and should residents have any concerns please notify us during this time period to investigate.

Slurry Seal
Example of Slurry Seal work on top of 1 year old Double High Float Surface Treatment (during construction). The slurry seal application first has a brown appearance then turns to black as it cures.

Crack Sealing

Crack Sealing work involves the sealing of cracks in hot-mix asphalt road surfaces. The process first begins with routing the existing cracks in order to get an acceptable width for the sealing compound that follows after routing. After the routed crack is sealed, a protective coating is applied on top to protect the sealing compound as it cures. Temporary road closures are not required for these projects however lane restrictions are. Due to the efficient process of this work, the equipment on the street are rarely stationary in one place for long. It is best to conduct crack sealing on roads that have slight to moderate distresses.

Crack Sealing 
Example of crack sealing for the road (post construction).

Watermain & Sewer Repairs, Replacement & Lining

Through the use of Closed Circuit Television Inspections “CCTV Inspections”, the Town is able to assess the conditions of pipe such as watermain, storm sewers and sanitary sewers. Depending on the location of the pipe, condition and forecasted construction work on the corresponding street, different types of repairs may be recommended should the pipe require it. These repairs can include isolated repairs or full replacements through the use of excavation. Internal repairs that don’t require excavation can also be conducted such as sealing for isolated areas or pipe lining for long sections of pipe. 

Watermain & Sewer repairs may be done as single project or combined with other road projects such as road resurfacing or road reconstruction. Due to this, construction phasing for these repairs is commonly project specific.

Frequently Asked Questions

To learn more about road construction works in Town, click here to view our road construction FAQs.